The course
Studying Economics and Mathematics at Royal Holloway means that you will learn from internationally renowned experts at two of the UK’s top ten teaching and research centres. Economic analysis relies increasingly on mathematical foundations and this joint degree combines the core program of both subjects. Optimal individual behaviour is found through the use of calculus, the dynamic properties of economics are studied with difference and differential equations, and important results in welfare economics are established from topological properties. Advanced mathematics and computing are vital for businesses in determining the best strategy. This degree provides the knowledge and transferable skills for a career in business or finance.
In your studies you will consider the analysis of individual behaviour and markets, with options in financial and industrial economics and other fields; you will learn how to analyse data and understand the fundamental properties of the mathematics used, from calculus to probability and statistics, graphs and optimisation and financial mathematics.
Our balanced approach to research and teaching guarantees high quality teaching from subject leaders, cutting edge materials and intellectually challenging debates. The course follows a coherent and developmental structure which is combined with an effective and flexible approach to study.
Course structure
Core Modules
Year 1
Principles of Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the theories of macroeconomics, that of the economy as a whole, and of microeconomics, the behaviour of individuals, firms and governments. You will look at how the goods and assets markets underpin growth, inflation and unemployment, and the role that fiscal and monetary policy play in macroeconomic management. You will examine the theoretical basis to supply and demand and the role of government intervention in individual markets. You will consider how to solve economic problems by manipulating a variety of simple diagrammatic and algebraic models in macro and microeconomics, critically evaluating the models and their limitations.

PostCrisis Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of how economists think about current world problems, such as generational inequality or the 'other' side of Adam Smith. You will look at how economic growth and wealth is created, and how it is influenced by technological change and institutions. You will examine how this wealth is distributed most efficiently, including situations such as who gets a kidney from a donor or which firm gets a licence to offer mobile phone services. You will also consider intergenerational inequality, including how economists think about tuition fees and university funding in general.

Principles of Statistics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the notion of probability and the basic theory and methods of statistics. You will look at random variables and their distributions, calculate probabilities of events that arise from standard distributions, estimate means and variances, and carry out t tests for means and differences of means. You will also consider the notions of types of error, power and significance levels, gaining experience in sorting a variety of data sets in a scientific way.

Calculus
In this module, you will develop an understanding of the key concepts in Calculus, including differentiation and integration. You will learn how to factorise polynomials and separate rational functions into partial fractions, differentiate commonly occurring functions, and find definite and indefinite integrals of a variety of functions using substitution or integration by parts. You will also examine how to recognise the standard forms of firstorder differential equations, and reduce other equations to these forms and solve them.

Functions of Several Variables
In this module you will develop an understanding of the calculus functions of more than one variable and how it may be used in areas such as geometry and optimisation. You learn how to manipulate partial derivatives, construct and manipulate line integrals, represent curves and surfaces in higher dimensions, calculate areas under a curve and volumes between surfaces, and evaluate double integrals, including the use of change of order of integration and change of coordinates.

Number Systems
In this module you will develop an understanding of the fundamental algebraic structures, including familiar integers and polynomial rings. You will learn how to apply Euclid's algorithm to find the greatest common divisor of two integers, and use mathematical induction to prove simple results. You will examine the use of arithmetic operations on complex numbers, extract roots of complex numbers, prove De Morgan's laws, and determine whether a given mapping is bijective.

Matrix Algebra
In this module you will develop an understanding of basic linear algebra, in particular the use of matrices and vectors. You will look at the basic theoretical and computational techniques of matrix theory, examining the power of vector methods and how they may be used to describe threedimensional space. You will consider the notions of field, vector space and subspace, and learn how to calculate the determinant of an n x n matrix.

Microeconomics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the models of individual optimisation and their applications. You will look at the key determinants of an individual’s behaviour in a variety of circumstances and the behaviour of firms in different market environments, such as perfect competition, monopoly and oligopoly. You will consider how changing circumstances and new information influences the actions of the economic agents concerned, and examine the properties of competitive markets and the need for government intervention to correct market failures.

Macroeconomics
In this module you will develop an understanding of macroeconomics and macroeconomic policymaking. You will look at a variety of contemporary and historical macroeconomic events, and the differences between the short, medium and long run. You will consider why some countries are rich and some are poor, why different economies grow at different rates, and what determines economic growth and prosperity. You will examine the role of monetary and fiscal policy, its impact on the economy and its limitations. You will also analyse how taxation, budget deficits, and public debt affect the economy.

Statistical Methods
In this module you will develop an understanding of statistical modelling, becoming familiar with the theory and the application of linear models. You will learn how to use the classic simple linear regression model and its generalisations for modelling dependence between variables. You will examine how to apply nonparametric methods, such as the Wilxocon and KolmogorovSmirnov goodnessoffit tests, and learn to use the Minitab statistical software package.

Graphs and Optimisation
In this module you will develop an understanding of the basic concepts of graph theory and linear programming. You will consider how railroad networks, electrical networks, social networks, and the web can be modelled by graphs, and look at basic examples of graph classes such as paths, cycles and trees. You will examine the flows in networks and how these are related to linear programming, solving problems using the simplex algorithm and the strong duality theorem.

Microeconomics  Mathematical Pathway
In this module you will develop an understanding of the behaviour of individuals and firms in the economy. You will look at models of individual optimisation and their applications, considering the key determinants of an individual’s behaviour in a variety of circumstances. You will examine the behaviour of firms in different market environments such as perfect competition, monopoly and oligopoly, and the factors which are important in shaping the decisions that firms make in each market environment. You will learn to manipulate and solve diagrammatic and algebraic models of microeconomics, analysing the properties of competitive markets and assessing the role of government intervention in correcting market failures.
 All modules are optional
Optional Modules
Year 1 All modules are core

Financial Markets and Institutions
In this module you will develop an understanding of the economic principles underlying the working of national and international financial institutions. You will look at what a financial system is and does, and the distinct functions of each component. You will consider the key financial instruments and the relationship between assets, agents, and institutions, and learn to solve simple problems using quantitative and graphical tools. You will critically evaluate country differences and analyse the interdependencies and rapid change of the modern financial world.

Industrial Growth and Competition
In this module you will develop an understanding of the principalagent problem, the Coase theorem, theories of the firm, the role of transaction costs, moral hazard, adverse selection, and issues surrounding organisation, investment, governance and expansion of corporations. You will look the role of incentivisation and how conflicts of interests shape economic interactions. You will consider the role of transaction costs in determining the existence, scale and scope of firms, and examine why government regulation may be inferior to market solutions when dealing with externalities. You will also analyse the developments of AngloAmerican industrial and Japanese capitalism.

Personnel Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the basic theoretical models of personnel economics and how these can be applied to policy issues. You will look at contracts between firms and their workers, focussing on hiring, training, pay, job assignments, promotion, quits and dismissals, and pensions. You will consider the nature of labour contracts, and use statistical analysis to examine the empirical relevance of different types of contract.

Introduction to Economic Growth
In this module you will develop an understanding of the process of economic growth at the world level, and the sources of income and growth differences across countries. You will look at Piketty's work on income distribution and economic growth, Malthus' work on population and economic growth, and Solow's standard economic growth model. You will examine why some countries are rich and some are poor, and consider the differences between countries that explain economic success and failures.

Vector Analysis and Fluids
In this module you will develop an understanding of the concepts of scalar and vector fields. You examine how vector calculus is used to define general coordinate systems and in differential geometry. You will learn how to solve simple partial differential equations by separating variables, and become familiar with how these concepts can be appield in the field of dynamics of inviscid fluids.

Probability
In this module you will develop an understanding of the basic principles of the mathematical theory of probability. You will use the fundamental laws of probability to solve a range of problems, and prove simple theorems involving discrete and continuous random variables. You will learn how to forumulate an explain fundamental limit theorems, such as the weak law of large numbers and the central limit theorem.

Ordinary Differential Equations and Fourier Analysis
In this module you will develop an understanding of the concepts arising when the boundary conditions of a differential equation involves two points. You will look at eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in trigonometric differential equations, and determine the Fourier series for a periodic function. You will learn how to manipulate the Dirac deltafunction and apply the Fourier transform. You will also examine how to solve differential equations where the coefficients are variable.

Linear Algebra and Project
In this module you will develop an understanding of vectors and matrices within the context of vector spaces, with a focus on deriving and using various decompositions of matrices, including eigenvalue decompositions and the socalled normal forms. You will learn how these abstract notions can be used to solve problems encountered in other fields of science and mathematics, such as optimisation theory. Working in small groups, you will put together different aspects of mathematics in a project on a topic of your choosing, disseminating your findings in writing and giving an oral presentation to your peers.

Rings and Factorisation
In this module you will develop an understanding of ring theory and how this area of algebra can be used to address the problem of factorising integers into primes. You will look at how these ideas can be extended to develop notions of 'prime factorisation' for other mathematical objects, such as polynomials. You will investigate the structure of explicit rings and learn how to recognise and construct ring homomorphisms and quotients. You will examine the Gaussian integers as an example of a Euclidean ring, Kronecker's theorem on field extensions, and the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

Groups and Group Actions
In this module you will develop an understanding of the algebraic structures known as groups. You will look at how groups represent symmetries in the world around us, examining examples that arise from the theory of matrices and permutations. You will see how groups are ubiquitous and used in many different fields of human study, including mathematics, physics, the study of crystals and atoms, public key cryptography, and music theory. You also will also consider how various counting problems concerning discrete patterns can be solved by means of group actions.

Further Linear Algebra and Modules
In this module you will develop an understanding of the language and concepts of linear algebra that are used within Mathematics. You will look at topics in linear algebra and the theory of modules, which can be seen as generalisations of vector spaces. You will learn how to use alternative matrix representations, such as the Jordan canonical or the rational canonical form, and see why they are important in mathematics.

Complex Variable
In this module you will develop an understanding of the basic complex variable theory. You will look at the definitions of continuity and differentiability of a complex valued function at a point, and how CauchyRiemann equations can be applied. You will examine how to use a power series to define the complex expontential function, and how to obtain Taylor series of rational and other functions of standard type, determining zeros and poles of given functions. You will also consider how to use Cauchy's Residue Theorem to evaulate real integrals.

Real Analysis
In this module you will develop an understanding of the convergence of series. You will look at the Weierstrass definition of a limit and use standard tests to investigate the convergence of commonly occuring series. You will consider the power series of standard functions, and analyse the Intermediate Value and Mean Value Theorems. You will also examine the properties of the Riemann integral.

Industrial Economics
In this module you will develop your understanding of the methods and models applied by economists in the analysis of firms and industrial organisations, including competition policy. You will look at how these models can be manipulated to solve problems relating to industrial economics, and how the models can be applied to important policy areas, while also being aware of the limitations of the theory.

Industrial Economics 1
In this module you will develop an understanding of the methods and models applied by economists in the analysis of firms and industries. You will learn how to manipulate these models and analytically solve problems relating to industrial economics. You will consider the applications of the models to important policy areas, exploring topics such as collusion, mergers, product differentiation and asymmetric information. You will also also examine the limitations of the theory.

Financial Economics 1
In this module you will develop an understanding of the financial market, institutions, participants and traded assets that constitute a modern financial system. You will look at the theories of riskfactor pricing, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT). You will consider the theory of, and empirical evidence on, efficient, markets and examine the process of price formation. You will also analyse the derivation and construction of efficient portfolios.

Financial Economics 2
In this module you will develop an understanding of the wide range of fixed income securities and derivatives available to investors in the financial markets. You will look at the basic institutional features of derivatives markets, as well as the pricing of bonds and of derivative instruments and using them for hedging purposes. You will consider investment and trading strategies that use bonds and derivatives, and evaluate the use of bonds in immunising portfolios based on the bond's duration. You will also explore the features and uses of the most popular types of derivatives available today, including options, futures, forwards, and swaps.

Econometrics I
In this module you will develop an understanding of the theoretical properties of different econometric estimation and testing procedures under various modelling assumptions. You will learn to formulate, estimate, test and interpret suitable models for the empirical study of economic phenomena. You will consider how to apply regression techniques and evaluate the appropriateness of each econometric estimation method under different data limitations.

Econometrics II
In this module you will develop an understanding of the theoretical properties of different econometric estimation and testing procedures under various modelling assumptions. You will look at regression techniquies and learn how to apply relevant econometric and statistical methods to your own research. You will also evaluate the appropriateness of each of the economic estimation methods and the impact of consider data limirations.

Understanding Financial Crises
In this module you will develop an understanding of the fragility of the financial system and its relevance to the current financial crisis. You will learn the economic meaning of the terms liquidity and solvency in the context of financial intermediaries. You will look at the models of equilibrium bank runs and consider the implications of imposing capital structure controls and liquidity control on financial intermediaries. You will also critically evaluate the links between financial crises and the macroeconomy.

Environmental Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of how economic methods can be applied to environmental issues facing society. You will consider the difficulties arising in using economic analysis in environmental policy design and learn how to solve and manipulate a variety of diagrammatic and algebraic models in environmental economics. You will evaluate a number of realworld environmental policy problems and see how economic analysis has been applied in their solution.

Experimental Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the use of experiments to test economic theories. You will look at how individuals make decisions in markets, how individuals decide to spend money today or save it for future spending, the assumption of selfregarding preferences commonly made in standard economic models, and the ability to act rationally in a strategic environment. You will consider the issues raised by experimental design and critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of experimental methods.

Monetary Economics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the role of money in the economy. You will look at models where inflation shows persistence, the theory of monetary policy, monetary policy operating procedures and the central banking mechanisms. You will consider why inflation is persistent in the data and how the political forces affecting monetary policymaking may affect inflation.

Game Theory
In this module you will develop an understanding of the mathematical models used to study and analyse strategic interactions between agents. You will look at the fundamental concepts in game theory as applied to economics in general and microeconomics in particular. You will become familiar with basic equilibrium concepts such as Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium, and be able to find equilibrium outcomes of simple games including the use of backward induction.
 Advanced Economic Theory
 Financial Econometrics

Labour Economic
In this module you will develop your understanding of the main theoretical and empirical issues in modern labour economics. You will look at theory, evidence and policy, covering labour demand, labour supply and time allocation decisions, schooling and job training, human capital investment, wage determination, unemployment, minimum wage, returns to schooling, discrimination, and immigration. You will critically analyse important labour market phenomena, as well as various public policy issues, such as government training programs, minimum wage policies, unemployment insurance and welfare benefits.
 Philosophy of Economics

Public Economics
In this module you develop an understanding of the effects of government policy upon the economy and the design of policy. You will look at empirical methods for policy evaluation and discuss research carried out in public economics, on topics such as income taxation, welfare support, behavioural responses, and social security.

Topics in Economic Histor
In this module you will develop your understanding of important topics from economic history, covering periods of economic growth and wellbeing, agricultural and urban development, globalisation and migration, banking and monetary systems, and the Great Depression and recovery.
 Development Economics

Advanced Topics in Game Theor
In this module you will develop an understanding of the mathematical models used to study and analyse strategic interactions between agents. You will look at the fundamental concepts in game theory as applied to economics in general and microeconomics in particular. You will become familiar with basic equilibrium concepts such as Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium, and be able to find equilibrium outcomes of simple games including the use of backward induction.
 Economics of Inequality

Mathematics Project
You will carry out a detailed investigation on a topic of your choosing, guided by an academic supervisor. You will prepare a written report around 7,000 words in length, and give a tenminute presentation outlining your findings.

Number Theory
In this module you will develop an understanding of how prime numbers are the building blocks of the integers 0, ±1, ±2, … You will look at how simple equations using integers can be solved, and examine whether a number like 2017 should be written as a sum of two integer squares. You will also see how Number Theory can be used in other areas such as Cryptography, Computer Science and Field Theory.

Complexity Theory
In this module you will develop an understanding the different classes of computational complexity. You will look at computational hardness, learning how to deduce cryptographic properties of related algorithms and protocols. You will examine the concept of a Turing machine, and consider the millennium problems, including P vs NP, with a $1,000,000 prize on offer from the Clay Mathematics Institute if a correct solution can be found.

Quantum Theory 1
In this module you will develop an understanding of quantum theory, and the development of the field to explain the behaviour of particles at the atomic level. You will look at the mathematical foundations of the theory, including the Schrodinger equation. You will examine how the theory is applied to one and three dimensional systems, including the hydrogen atom, and see how a probabilistic theory is required to interpret what is measured.

NonLinear Dynamic Systems
In this module, you will develop an understanding of nonlinear dynamical systems. You will investigate whether the behaviour of a nonlinear system can be predicted from the corresponding linear system, and see how dynamical systems can be used to analyse mechanisms such as the spread of disease, the stability of the universe, and the evolution of economic systems. You will gain an insight into the 'secrets' of the nonlinear world and the appearance of chaos, examining the significant developments achieved in this field during the final quarter of the 20th Century.

Inference
In this module you will develop an understanding of the main priciples and methods of statstics, in particular the theory of parametric estimation and hypotheses testing.You will learn how to formulate statistical problems in mathematical terms, looking at concepts such as Bayes estimators, the NeymanPearson framework, likelihood ratio tests, and decision theory.

Time Series Analysis
In this module you will develop an understanding of some of the descriptive methods and theoretical techniques that are used to analyse time series. You will look at the standard theory around several prototype classes of time series models and learn how to apply appropriate methods of times series analysis and forecasting to a given set of data using Minitab, a statistical computing package. You will examine inferential and associated algorithmic aspects of timeseries modelling and simulate time series based on several prototype classes.

Channels
In this module you will develop an understanding of the mathematics of communication, focusing on digital communication as used across the internet and by mobile telephones. You looking at compression, considering how small a file, such as a photo or video, can be made, and therefore how the use of data can be minimised. You will examine error correction, seeing how communications may be correctly received even if something goes wrong during the transmission, such as intermittent wifi signal. You will also analyse the noiseless coding theorem, defining and using the concept of channel capacity.

Mathematics of Financial Markets
In this module you will develop an understanding of how financial markets operate, with a focus on the ideas of risk and return and how they can be measured. You will look at the random behaviour of the stock market, Markowitz portfolio optimisation theory, the Capital Asset Pricing Model, the Binomial model, and the BlackScholes formula for the pricing of options.

Combinatorics
In this module you will develop an understanding of some of the standard techniques and concepts of combinatorics, including methods of counting, generating functions, probabilistic methods, permutations, and Ramsey theory. You will see how algebra and probability can be used to count abstract mathematical objects, and how to calculate sets by inclusion and exclusion. You will examine the applications of number theory and consider the use of simple probabilistic tools for solving combinatorial problems.

Cipher Systems
In this module you will develop an understanding of how error correcting codes are used to store and transmit information in technologies such as DVDs, telecommunication networks and digital television. You will look at the methods of elementary enumeration, linear algebra and finite fields, and consider the main coding theory problem. You will see how error correcting codes can be used to reconstruct the original information even if it has been altered or degraded.

Electromagnetism
In this module you will develop an understanding of the elementary ideas of electromagnetism. You will learn how to calculate electric fields and electric potentials from given fixed charge distributions and how to calculate magnetic fields and vector potentials from given steady current distributions. You will examine the magnetic effects of currents, including electromagnetic induction and displacement currents, and analyse the BiotSavart law and Ampere's law. You will examine Maxwell's equations, and the properties of electromagnetic waves in free space, as well as electric and magnetic dipoles and the electromagnetism of matter.

Applications of Field Theory
In this module you will develop an understanding of Field Theory. You will learn how to express equations such as X^{2017}=1 in a formal algebraic setting, how to classify finite fields, and how to determine the number of irreducible polynomials over a finitie field. You will also consider some the applications of fields, including ruler and compass constructions and why it is impossible to generically trisect an angle using them.

Mathematics in the Classroom
In this module you will develop an understanding of a range of methods for teaching children up to Alevel standard. You will act act as a role model for pupils, devising appropriate ways to convey the principles and concepts of mathematics. You will spend one session a week in a local school, taking responsibility for preparing lesson plans, putting together relevant learning aids, and delivering some of the classes. You will work with a specific teacher, who will act as a trainer and mentor, gaining valuable transferable skills.

Computational Number Theory
In this module you will develop an understanding of a range methods used for testing and proving primality, and for the factorisation of composite integers. You will look at the theory of binary quadratic forms, elliptic curves, and quadratic number fields, considering the principles behind stateofthe art factorisation methods. You will also look at how to analyse the complexity of fundamental numbertheoretic algorithms.

Principles of Algorithm Design
In this module you will develop an understanding of efficient algorithm design and its importance for handling large inputs. You will look at how computers have changed the world in the last few decades, and examine the mathematical concepts that have driven these changes. You will consider the theory of algorithm design, including dynamic programming, handling recurrences, worstcase analysis, and basic data structures such as arrays, stacks, balanced search trees, and hashing.

Dynamics of Real Fluids
In this module you will develop an understanding of how the theory of ideal fluids can be used to explain everyday phenomena in the world around us, such as how sound travels, how waves travel over the surface of a lake, and why golden syrup (or volcanic lava) flows differently from water. You will look at the essential features of compressible flow and consider basic vector analysis techniques.

Quantum Theory 2
In this module you will develop an understanding of how the RayleighRitz variational principle and perturbation theory can be used to obtain approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. You will look at the mathematical basis of the Period Table of Elements, considering spin and the Pauli exclusion principle. You will also examine the quantum theory of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.

Applied Probability
In this module you will develop an understanding of the probabilistic methods used to model systems with uncertain behaviour. You will look at the structure and concepts of discrete and continuous time Markov chains with countable stable space, and consider the methods of conditional expectation. You will learn how to generate functions, and construct a probability model for a variety of problems.

Quantum Information and Coding
In this module you will develop an understanding of how the behaviour of quantum systems can be harnessed to perform information processing tasks that are otherwise difficult, or impossible, to carry out. You will look at basic phenomena such as quantum entanglement and the nocloning principle, seeing how these can be used to perform, for example, quantum key distribution. You will also examine a number of basic quantum computing algorithms, observing how they outperform their classical counterparts when run on a quantum computer.

Advanced Financial Mathematics
In this module you will develop an understanding of the role of mathematics and statistics in securities markets. You will investigate the validity of various linear and nonlinear time series occurring in finance, and apply stochastic calculus, including partial differential equations, for interest rate and credit analysis. You will also consider how spot rates and prices for Asian and barrier exotic options are modelled.

Error Correcting Codes
In this module you will develop an understanding of how error correcting codes are used to store and transmit information in technologies such as DVDs, telecommunication networks and digital television. You will look at the methods of elementary enumeration, linear algebra and finite fields, and consider the main coding theory problem. You will see how error correcting codes can be used to reconstruct the original information even if it has been altered or degraded.

Public Key Cryptography
In this module you will develop an understanding of public key cryptography and the mathematical ideas that underpin it, including discrete logarithms, lattices and elliptic curves. You will look at several important public key cryptosystems, including RSA, Rabin, ElGamal encryption and Schnorr signatures. You will consider notions of security and attack models relevant for modern theoretical cryptography, such as indistinguishability and adaptive chosen ciphertext attack.

Groups and Group Actions
In this module you will develop an understanding of the algebraic structures known as groups. You will look at how groups represent symmetries in the world around us, examining examples that arise from the theory of matrices and permutations. You will see how groups are ubiquitous and used in many different fields of human study, including mathematics, physics, the study of crystals and atoms, public key cryptography, and music theory. You also will also consider how various counting problems concerning discrete patterns can be solved by means of group actions.

Further Linear Algebra and Modules
In this module you will develop an understanding of the language and concepts of linear algebra that are used within Mathematics. You will look at topics in linear algebra and the theory of modules, which can be seen as generalisations of vector spaces. You will learn how to use alternative matrix representations, such as the Jordan canonical or the rational canonical form, and see why they are important in mathematics.

Topology
In this module you will develop an understanding of geometric objects and their properties. You will look at objects that are preserved under continuous deformation, such as through stretching or twisting, and will examine knots and surfaces. You will see how colouring a knot can be used to determine whether or not it can be transformed into the unknot without any threading. You will also consider why topologists do not distinguish between a cup and a donut.

Dissertation in Economics
The Dissertation provides you with the opportunity to undertake an extended piece of individual research work. You will use the econometric and statistical techniques you have learned about in the quantitative method modules taken earlier in the course.
Teaching & assessment
Teaching is mostly by means of lectures and seminars, the latter providing a forum for students to work through problem sets and applications in a smaller and more interactive setting. Outside of scheduled teaching sessions, students work independently, or collaboratively, researching, reading and preparing for seminars.
Assessment is usually carried out by end of year examinations as well as class tests and assignments. Final year students can choose to complete an extended essay, which offers students the chance to conduct an original piece of research.
Entry requirements
Grade A in Alevel Maths At least five GCSEs at grade A*C or 9  4 including English and Mathematics.
A Levels: AABABB
Where an applicant is taking the EPQ alongside A  levels, the EPQ will be taken into consideration and result in lower Alevel grades being required. Socio  economic factors which may have impacted an applicant's education will be taken into consideration and alternative offers may be made to these applicants. Read more about what we look for here.
Other UK Qualifications
International & EU requirements
English language requirements
All teaching at Royal Holloway (apart from some language courses) is in English. You will therefore need to have good enough written and spoken English to cope with your studies right from the start.
The scores we require
 IELTS: 6.5 overall. Reading and writing 6.0. No other subscore lower than 5.5.
 Pearson Test of English: 61 overall. Reading and writing 54. No subscore lower than 51.
 Trinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE): ISE III.
 Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) grade C.
For more information about countryspecific entry requirements for your country please visit here. For international students who do not meet the direct entry requirements, we offer an International Foundation Year, run by Study Group at the Royal Holloway International Study Centre. Upon successful completion, students can progress on to selected undergraduate degree programmes at Royal Holloway, University of London.
Your future career
A Economics and Mathematic degree at Royal Holloway will provides you with an excellent background for a career in business or finance, focusing on developing your quantitative and analytical skills.
We will help students to recognise their own strengths, skills and abilities so that they can make strong applications for their chosen job or further study. We also provide support through a dedicated careers programme which give you access to employability workshops, events and guest speakers.
Fees & funding
Home and EU students tuition fee per year*: £9250
International students tuition fee per year**: £16900
Other essential costs***: There are no single associated costs greater than £50 per item on this course.
How do I pay for it? Find out more about funding options, including loans, scholarships and bursaries.
^{*}The tuition fee for UK and EU undergraduates is controlled by Government regulations, and for students starting a degree in the academic year 2018/19 will be £9,250 for that year, and is shown for reference purposes only. The tuition fee for UK and EU undergraduates has not yet been confirmed for students starting a degree in the academic year 2019/20.
^{**}Fees for international students may increase yearonyear in line with the rate of inflation. The policy at Royal Holloway is that any increases in fees will not exceed 5% for continuing students. For further information see fees and funding and our terms and conditions.
^{***}These estimated costs relate to studying this particular degree programme at Royal Holloway. Costs, such as accommodation, food, books and other learning materials and printing etc., have not been included.