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Law and Economics

Law and Economics

LLB
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If we make you an offer for this course for 2022 entry, we guarantee to confirm your place even if one of your final A-level results is one grade below those you have received in that offer. Equivalencies and exclusions apply. Full details here.

This programme is currently under development and may be subject to change

Key information

Duration: 4 years full time

UCAS code: ML11

Institution code: R72

Campus: Egham

The course

Law and Economics (LLB)

During this new four-year joint degree, you will study 50% in the Department of Law and Criminology and 50% in the Department of Economics, both within the School of Law and Social Sciences. Studying here means that you will learn from internationally renowned experts in their field; our balanced approach to research and teaching guarantees high quality teaching, cutting edge materials and intellectually challenging debates.

This degree is aimed at ambitious individuals and will provide you with the skills a lawyer will need to navigate the increasingly complex economic environment. The course is a Qualifying Law Degree and complies with the qualification frameworks of both the Bar Standards Board and the Solicitors Regulation Authority.

Studying these two increasingly interrelated subjects means that you will study a number of core modules which are particularly relevant such as eg. Company Law, European Union Law, Game Theory and Behaviour so you will study financial law and analyse disputes and negotiations which are part of a lawyer’s every day.

The knowledge and transferable skills gained will lead to career prospects working for government agencies, business organisations or corporate legal departments.  

  • Integrated Master’s degree which provides you with an in depth understanding of law and economics
  • Qualifying Law Degree, as defined by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board
  • Learn how to advise the appropriate course of legal action in economic environments and vice versa
  • Integrated Master’s degree which provides you with an in depth understanding of law and economics.
  • Qualifying Law Degree, as defined by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board.

Core Modules

Year 1

You will take the following modules in Law:

  • Constitutions establish and control the powers of the state and regulate the relationship between the state and its citizens. This module examines the UK’s uncodified constitution, primarily considering the main characteristics of the British system of government, including the division of powers between the legislature, executive, and judiciary and between Westminster and the devolved regions; key constitutional concepts and their associated challenges, including Parliamentary sovereignty, conventions, the rule of law, and human rights protection before and after the Human Rights Act 1998; and how administrative law, particularly judicial review, controls the actions of the government and public authorities.

  • Contracts form the legal basis of commercial transactions. This module examines the legalities regarding the formation of contracts, the capacity to contract and the performance of legal obligations as well as remedies for breach of contract. In particular, you will examine the following areas: introduction to contract; invitation to treat; offer and acceptance; consideration; Promissory Estoppel; intentions to create legal relations; implied terms; express terms; exemption clauses; unfair contract terms; mistakes; types of misrepresentation; misrepresentation and remedies; duress; undue influence; frustration and force majeure; breach of contract and remedies; and third-party rights.

  • This module serves as an intensive introduction to the fundamentals of the legal system and legal study. It explores elements of the historical, philosophical and social context of the English Legal Systems, including issues of law, morality and justice. Additionally, various sources of law, including at national and international level, and through treaties, statute and case law will also be studied.

You will take the following modules in Economics:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of the theories of macroeconomics, that of the economy as a whole, and of microeconomics, the behaviour of individuals, firms and governments. You will look at how the goods and assets markets underpin growth, inflation and unemployment, and the role that fiscal and monetary policy play in macroeconomic management. You will examine the theoretical basis to supply and demand and the role of government intervention in individual markets. You will consider how to solve economic problems by manipulating a variety of simple diagrammatic and algebraic models in macro- and microeconomics, critically evaluating the models and their limitations.

  • The aims of the module are to cover the basic mathematical and quantitative tools used by economists every day. The module gives an emphasis to the mathematical tools, which are applicable to solving a wide range of economic problems. The first half of the module is devoted to linear algebra, specific functions of one and more variables used in economics, manipulating those functions and finding their minima and maxima. In addition, the first half of this module delivers the rules of integration and differentiation, which prepares the you to apply constrained and unconstrained optimisation techniques in their subsequent 2nd and 3rd year of studies. Constrained and unconstrained optimisation techniques are also discussed. The second half of the module is devoted to optimisation theory which in turn will use the concepts of vectors and matrices, drawn from linear algebra, and require the study of concave functions. The knowledge of matrices will help you solve systems of linear equations, which are used in both microeconomic and macroeconomic planning and forecasting.

  • This module will be composed of an introduction to Employability, library resources, team building, and CV making. Career services will provide a session on self-awareness and decision making and library services will present their relevant resources. Finally, the Economics department will organise some team building exercises.

Year 2

You will take the following modules in Law:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of the general nature of criminal law and learn how to apply the general principles of criminal liability, including the liability of accomplices. You will look at the elements of an offence and the various requirements for actus reus and mens rea, considering how they apply to various offences against the person or property. You will examine selected principal offences against the person, including fatal and non-fatal offences involving physical violence such as assaults and those involving sexual violence. You will also asses selected principal property offences, including theft, burglary, robbery and deception, and the inchoate offences and the liability of accomplices.

  • This module examines the various types of interests which can exist in land, including the rights and duties under these interests, how they can be protected against third parties acquiring other interests in the land, and how they can be transferred. In particular, you will examine fundamental concepts; contracts relating to land; adverse possession; leases and licences; mortgages; co-ownership and the family home; freehold covenants; easements; and protection of interests in land (both registered and unregistered).

You will take the following modules in Economics:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of the models of individual optimisation and their applications. You will look at the key determinants of an individual’s behaviour in a variety of circumstances and the behaviour of firms in different market environments, such as perfect competition, monopoly and oligopoly. You will consider how changing circumstances and new information influences the actions of the economic agents concerned, and examine the properties of competitive markets and the need for government intervention to correct market failures.

  • Data Skills for Economists
  • Career services will provide a session on how to be ready to apply for an internship at the end of the second year. Students will prepare for a psychometric test and will undertake a series of a mock interviews in order to improve their interview technique. Finally, students will attend at least one Econ@Work talk to be aware of professional life and challenges.

Year 3

You will take the following modules in Law:

  • This module examines the role of the European Union (EU) in the free movement of peoples, goods, services and capital. You will explore the legal enforcement of treaties on which the Union is based, with a consideration of both national and international systems. You will examine these treaties and the various EU institutions created under them (and incorporated into domestic law), examining their legal and policy-making powers. In particular, you will look at the laws and functions of the EU Institutions including the European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Council and the Court of Justice of the EU, and explore how free movement works across national borders and how the law of the EU is enforced.

  • The Law of Contract

You will take the following modules in Economics:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy-making. You will look at a variety of contemporary and historical macroeconomic events, and the differences between the short, medium and long run. You will consider why some countries are rich and some are poor, why different economies grow at different rates, and what determines economic growth and prosperity. You will examine the role of monetary and fiscal policy, its impact on the economy and its limitations. You will also analyse how taxation, budget deficits, and public debt affect the economy.

  • The aim of this module is to provide you with a solid understanding of the essentials of empirical research techniques (i.e. econometrics) used by applied economists. The module will cover core econometric topics that are needed by all wishing to undertake econometric analysis, with a particular focus on topics in both time series and cross section econometrics that can be used by students of industrial, business and finance.

  • The aim of this module is to extend your knowledge of the essentials of empirical research techniques (i.e. econometrics) used by applied economists. The module will build on the topics covered in Econometrics 1.

  • This third-year course will deepen the elements covered previously in Employability 1 and 2. Career services will provide a session on how to be ready for employment at the end of the year. Students will prepare for a psychometric test and undertake a series of mock interviews in order to improve their interview technique. Finally, students will attend at least one Econ@Work talk to be aware of professional life and challenges.

Year 4

You will take the following modules in Law:

  • In this module you will examine equity and its relationship with the common law. You will explore the concept of a trust and the laws associated with governing the creation and administration of trusts. You will explore the development of equity historically and explain how purpose trusts operate. You will look at how charitable trusts are created and consider the duties of trustees. You will consider the nature and scope of fiduciary obligations and consider when those obligations might be breached and the consequences of such. You will also consider particular types of trusts, including secret trusts, resulting and constructive trusts.

  • Company Law

You will take the following modules in Economics:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of the mathematical models used to study and analyse strategic interactions between agents. You will look at the fundamental concepts in game theory as applied to economics in general and microeconomics in particular. You will become familiar with basic equilibrium concepts such as Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium, and be able to find equilibrium outcomes of simple games including the use of backward induction.

  • Law/Economics Dissertation

Optional Modules

There are a number of optional course modules available during your degree studies. The following is a selection of optional course modules that are likely to be available. Please note that although the College will keep changes to a minimum, new modules may be offered or existing modules may be withdrawn, for example, in response to a change in staff. Applicants will be informed if any significant changes need to be made.

Year 1
  • All modules are core
Year 2

Optional modules in Politics may include:

  • In this module you will analyse the contemporary politics of the European Union and its institutions, amid the challenges of the triple crisis of economics, migration and Brexit. You will learn about the political history of European integration after 1949 and the contemporary theory of European integration. The first term will begin with an introduction to the European Union as a political system followed by an overview of the European Union's historical development. The second term will focus on contestation of the European Union and the theories that underpin this, in order to explain how the EU developed and the challenges that it faces. Topics will include Euroscepticism, party politics, public opinion, Brexit and EU-UK relations, and European Parliament elections. The theory sessions comprise of federalism, neo-functionalism, liberal intergovernmentalism and the new institutionalisms.

  • I in this module you will develop an understanding of contemporary British politics. You will look at the ways in which British government has evolved, how it continues to operate, and why it operates in the way it does. You will consider the causes and consequences of major political change in Britain and examine the underlying assumptions upon which theoretical disputes in political science are based.

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of some of the key concepts in political theory today. You will look at political obligation, civil disobedience, democracy, citizenship, equality, global justice, human rights, and freedom and toleration. You will consider important theorists including Berlin Rawls, Nozick, Sandel, Okin and Pettit, examining the recent major theoretical perspectives in the context of contemporary politics.

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of the themes, arguments, and interpretations of major political thinkers from the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. You will look at the works of Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Mill, Marx and Nietzsche and consider how the ideas articulated by these thinkers continue to underpin contemporary debates about the nature of freedom, human rights, value pluralism, popular sovereignty, state legitimacy, and the modern condition. You will also examine how study of these thinkers illuminates contemporary debates even where these debates no longer make reference to them.

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of how citizens, politicians and the media interact across Western democracies during both electoral and governing periods. You will look at the production and consumption of political news, consider election campaigns and their effects, and examine contemporary debates in political communication, including ethical issues.

Year 3

Optional modules in Law may include:

  • Law Dissertation
  • Company Law
  • Medical Law
  • Advocacy and Court Practice
  • Law of Evidence
  • International and Comparative Human Rights Law
  • Public International Law
  • Family Law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Intellectual Property Law

Optional modules in Politics may include:

  • In this module you will develop an understanding of regulation in the European Union, including delivery of policy and administration. You will look at how the world's largest market operates, with a focus on EU public policy, including de-regulation, re-regulation, budgets and spending. You will examine the concept of the single market, the Euro and its crisis, justice, home affairs and counter-terrorism, the EU budget, agriculture, regional development, and social and environmental policies.

  • The Politics of the Internet and the Information Society
  • Radical Political Theory
  • The Politics of Toleration
  • Social Justice: From Theory to Practice
  • Leadership, Power and the British Prime Minister
  • American Political Development
  • The Politics of Russia and Eastern Europe

We use a variety of methods of assessment.

These might include an essay about a controversial issue, an advisory question where students have to apply the law to a particular scenario or a critical analysis of a recently published piece of research. Some modules involve oral presentations.

Assessment is both summative and formative, and you will be provided with detailed comments on essays and other coursework.

Progression to the next year is dependent on passing the mandatory modules. The combination of quality and range of assessments helps our students to develop a wide portfolio of skills and learning helps students to achieve excellent degrees.

A Levels: AAB-ABB

Required subjects:

  • GCSE Maths at grade A or 7.
  • At least five GCSEs at grade A*-C or 9-4 including English and Mathematics.

Where an applicant is taking the EPQ alongside A-levels, the EPQ will be taken into consideration and result in lower A-level grades being required. For students who are from backgrounds or personal circumstances that mean they are generally less likely to go to university you may be eligible for an alternative lower offer. Follow the link to learn more about our contextual offers.

English language requirements

All teaching at Royal Holloway (apart from some language courses) is in English. You will therefore need to have good enough written and spoken English to cope with your studies right from the start.

The scores we require
  • IELTS: 6.5 overall. Writing 6.0. Reading 6.0. No other subscore lower than 5.5.
  • Pearson Test of English: 61 overall. 54 in writing. 54 in reading. No other subscore lower than 51.
  • Trinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE): ISE III.
  • Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) grade C.

Country-specific requirements

For more information about country-specific entry requirements for your country please visit here.

Undergraduate Pathways

For international students who do not meet the direct entry requirements, the International Study Centre offers the following pathway programmes:

International Foundation Year - for progression to the first year of an undergraduate degree.

International Year One - for progression to the second year of an undergraduate degree.

A Law and Economics degree from Royal Holloway will equip you with an enviable range of transferable skills and will make you highly employable in the UK and internationally. You will be equipped with the knowledge, skills and experiences essential to advance your future career or move onto further study and pursue a career in research and evaluation in academic and policy contexts.

We help our students to recognise their own strengths, skills and abilities so they can make strong applications for their chosen career or for further study.

  • Get involved in extra-curricular activities such as mooting, negotiation workshops, interviewing competitions, our student-led law gazette and our Legal Advice Centre
  • Develop your professional network by attending workshops, events and guest speaker talks
  • Meet employers and alumni at our law fairs and networking events

Our Law and Economics graduates have gone on to careers with employers including law firms, the Crown Prosecution Service, the police, the probation service, the prison service and the National Crime Agency, as well as public and private management, financial institutions and government.

Home (UK) students tuition fee per year*: £9,250

EU and International students tuition fee per year**: £18,800

Other essential costs***: TBC

How do I pay for it? Find out more about funding options, including loansscholarships and bursaries. UK students who have already taken out a tuition fee loan for undergraduate study should check their eligibility for additional funding directly with the relevant awards body.

*The tuition fee for UK undergraduates is controlled by Government regulations. For students starting a degree in the academic year 2021/22, the fee will be £9,250 for that year. The fee for UK undergraduates starting in 2022/23 has not yet been confirmed.

**For EU nationals starting a degree from 2021/22, the UK Government has confirmed that you will no longer be eligible to pay the same fees as UK students, nor be eligible for funding from the Student Loans Company. This means you will be classified as an international student. At Royal Holloway, we wish to support those students affected by this change in status through this transition, however a decision on the level of fee for EU students starting their course with us in September 2022 has not yet been made.

Fees for international students may increase year-on-year in line with the rate of inflation. The policy at Royal Holloway is that any increases in fees will not exceed 5% for continuing students. For further information see fees and funding and our terms and conditions. Fees shown above are for 2021/22 and are displayed for indicative purposes only.

***These estimated costs relate to studying this particular degree programme at Royal Holloway. Costs, such as accommodation, food, books and other learning materials and printing etc., have not been included.

Accreditation

Solicitors Regulation Authority

On successful completion of this programme you may satisfy the requirements of the Solicitors Regulation Authority / Bar Standards Board to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.

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Admissions office: +44 (0)1784 414944

90% overall satisfaction from our students (Law)

Source: National Student Survey, 2020

1st in the UK for graduate prospects (Law)

Source: Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, 2021

Top 10 UK Economics department

Source: THE, REF institutions ranked by subject, 2014

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