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MA3073 Critical Problems in Modernism and Modernity

Tutor: Christopher Townsend

Teaching: 2 hours per week

Value: 1 unit

Overview

This course examines ideas of time and space and new media (film and radio) in high modernism in the context of the theoretical framework that modernism provides for itself to understand the transformed relationship of culture to modernity. Whereas the second year course MA2059 establishes a general historical context for modernist film here we are placing these films firstly in a specific critical context, secondly in a wider theoretical context, and thirdly in a detailed historical relation. We use this framework to interrogate some of the critical problems for the imagination and use of media within modernism. The new media in question range from mainstream narrative films and ‘art cinema’ – Chaplin’s Modern Times to avant-garde film and experiments with sound in new media such as radio (Pound’s Cavalcanti) and the use of sound in Dada poetry.

 

Central questions addressed in the course will include the structure of the human subject (the philosophical subject of being) within modernity, modernism’s resistance to clear vision through forms of occlusion and blinding; the resistance to a culture of linear, ‘Taylorised’ time and space that film and photography might be understood to embody as much as the production line; the consequences of the First World War in producing a horror of modernity’s effects, and the reaction to a notion of the perfectible body that might be seen as characterising, for different artists, the appeals of fascism, socialist realism and consumer capitalism.

 

Part One: The “Structure” of the Modern Subject 1-5

1: What Modernity and When? The Subject and Modernity (Lecture: Prof. Christopher Townsend)

 

‘Modernism’ is often understood through very diffuse and sometimes contradictory characteristics, and as beginning and ending with very different dates – if it has ended at all. Is modernism a movement with specific aims and aspirations, or a more general response to the full onset of industrial modernity in western culture in the nineteenth century? This lecture establishes a context for the rest of the course – which will be taught entirely through seminars. It looks at the chronology of modernism and identifies significant historical events, from the early nineteenth century through to the mid twentieth, both within the wider world and the specific field of culture.

 

 

Reading: Sheppard, R. Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism (Chapter 1: ‘Modernism and Modernity, The Problem of Definition’) (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2000)

 

 

Further Reading:

Bathrick, D. & Huyssen, A. ‘Modernism and the Experience of Modernity’ in Bathrick & Huyssen (Eds.)

Modernity and the Text: Revisions of German Modernism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989) pp. 1 – 16.

 

Berman, M. All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin Books, 1988)

Harvey, D. The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990) chapters 15 and 16, ‘The time and space of the Enlightenment project’, ‘The rise of modernism as a cultural force’, pp. 240 -283.

Kittler, F. Gramophone, Film, Typewriter (Stanford University Press, 1999)

Timms, E. & Kelly, D. (Eds.) Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985)

2: The Structure of Time and Space: Production Line

What does it mean to be modern? More significantly, what was the effect of modernity on what it meant to be human? The next two seminars set out the conditions of subjective experience in modernity, firstly through an examination of the critical debate about time and space in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century – a moment at which both are ‘standardised’ by industrial culture and thrown into doubt by Einstein’s theories of relativity. The second seminar goes on to look at the impact of modernity on subjectivity through Walter Benjamin’s contrasting categories of Erlebnis and Erfahrung, established in his reading of Baudelaire’s poetry and the philosophy of Henri Bergson. By attending to Chaplin’s parody of the life of the worker in industrial modernity, and the ill-fit of the body to the machine, we see how a critique which is established in modernist vanguard art is also produced within a mechanised mass-culture.

 

Reading: Kern, S. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880 – 1918 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983)

 

 

Further Reading:

Antliff, M. Inventing Bergson: Cultural Politics and the Parisian Avant-Garde (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993)

 

Bergson, H. Matter and Memory (1896)

Bergson, H. Creative Evolution (1907)

Burwick, F. & Douglass, P. The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992)

Davies, I. ‘Western European Art Forms Influenced by Nietzsche and Bergson before 1914’, Art Internationalvol.19, no.3, (1975)

Doane, M-A. The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency and the Archive (Harvard University Press, 2003)

Douglass, P. ‘Bergson and Cinema: Friends or Foes’ in Mullarkey, J. (ed.) The New Bergson (Manchester University Press, 1999)

Guerlac, S. Thinking in Time: An Introduction to Henri Bergson (Cornell University Press, 2006)

Harvey, D. The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990) chapters 15 and 16, ‘The time and space of the Enlightenment project’, ‘The rise of modernism as a cultural force’, pp. 240 -283.

Levenson, M. ‘The Time Mind of the Twenties’ in Marcus, L. & Nicholls, P. (eds.) The Cambridge History of Twentieth Century English Literature (CUP, 2004)

Pilkington, A.E. Bergson and His Influence: A Reassessment(Cambridge University Press, 1976) Bedford Main 190 BERG/P and General AE Ber, F

3: The Structure of Time and Space: Entertainment

Viewing: Modern Times (Charlie Chaplin, 1936)

 

Reading: Benjamin, W. ‘On Some Motifs in Baudelaire’ (1940) in Eiland, H. & Jennings, M.W. (eds.) Walter Benjamin, Selected Writings, Volume 4: 1938 – 1940 (Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003) pp. 313 – 355

 

 

Further Reading:

Biasin, G-P. Montale, Debussy and Modernism (chapter 3, ‘Strategies of the Anti-Hero’) (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989) pp. 69 – 107

 

Crary. J. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture (MIT Press, 1999)

Gaughan, M.I. ‘The Prosthetic Body in Early Modernism: Dada’s Anti-Humanist Humanism’ in Jones, D. (ed.) Dada Culture: Critical Texts on the Avant-Garde (Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2006)

Kuisel, R.F. Capitalism and the State in Modern France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)

Maier, C.S., ‘Between Taylorism and Technocracy’ The Journal of Contemporary History, 6, no.2 (1970) pp. 27-63

McCabe, S., ‘“Delight in Dislocation”: Stein, Chaplin and Man Ray’ in Cinematic Modernism: Modernist Poetry and Film (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) pp. 56 – 92

McLoed, M., ‘Architecture or Revolution: Taylorism, Technocracy and Social Change’ Art Journal, 43, no.2 (summer 1983) pp. 132-147

Rabinbach, A. The Human Motor; Energy, Fatigue and the Origins of Modernity (University of California Press, 1990)

Simmons, S. ‘Chaplin Smiles on the Wall: Berlin Dada and Wish-Images of Popular Culture’ New German Critique, No. 84 (autumn 2001) pp. 3-34

4: The Structure of Seeing: Cinematograph

In this seminar we look at how the cinema constitutes a specific language of modernity, rather than a form of modernist art, through its adherence to a discourse of realism and ideas of coherence of space and time. We also examine how modernist artists in the pre and immediate post-war eras respond to film its naive faith in vision through a kind of blocking of the gaze through its solicitation.

 

Screening: Short ‘reality’ films 1907-1910; Anemic Cinéma (Marcel Duchamp, 1928)

 

Reading: Adcock, C. ‘Marcel Duchamp’s “Instantanés”: Photography and the Event Structure of the Ready-Mades’ in Foster, S.C. (ed.) “Event” Arts & Art Events (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988) pp. 239 – 266; Jay, M. Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth Century French Thought (chapters 1-3) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)

 

 

Further Reading:

Adcock, C. ‘Duchamp’s Perspective: The Intersection of Art and Geometry’ TOUT-Fait: The Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal Vol. 2, issue 5 (April 2003) www.toutfait.com/issues/volume2/issue_5/news/adcock/adcock1.html

 

Adelman, L. & Compton, M. ‘Mathematics in early abstract art’ in Compton, M., (ed.) Towards a New Art: Essays on the Background to Abstract Art, 1910 – 20 (London: Tate Gallery, 1980) pp. 64 – 89.

Antliff, M. Inventing Bergson: Cultural Politics and the Parisian Avant-Garde (Princeton University Press, 1993)

Bergson, H. (Mitchell, A. trans.) Creative Evolution (1911)

Betancourt, M. ‘Precision Optics/Optical Illusions: Inconsistency, Anemic Cinéma and the Rotoreliefs’ TOUT-Fait: The Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal , Vol. 2, issue 5 (April 2003)www.toutfait.com/issues/volume2/issue_5/articles/betancourt/betancourt.html

 

Clair, J. ‘Opticeries’, October no. 5 (summer 1978) pp. 101 – 112

Crary. J. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture (MIT Press, 1999)

Dalrymple Henderson, L. The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983)

Danius, S. The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception and Aesthetics (Cornell University Press, 2002)

Davies, I. ‘Western European Art Forms Influenced by Nietzsche and Bergson before 1914’, Art International vol.19, no.3, (1975) *

North, M. Camera Works: Photography and the Twentieth Century Word (Oxford University Press, USA, 2008) Forthcoming

Pilkington, A.E. Bergson and His Influence: A Reassessment (Cambridge University Press, 1976)

5: The Structure of Saying: Performance and the Gramophone

One of the fundamental characteristics of modernism is a loss of faith in the capacity of language to describe the world – a collapse perhaps best captured in Hofmannstahl’s Letter of Lord Chandos (1902). The ability of the human to describe things or events is understood as inadequate or even dishonest, a situation that will be further exacerbated by the impossibility of language to adequately cope with the monstrous events of the First World War. One effect of this is a literature that severs connections between its terms, a precursor of montage, and in extremis, the apparent severance of any relation between the thing and the word, as in Dada poetry. This is a situation that throws up a fundamental tension for modernism, between its critical dismantling of language and the rhetorical forms of the new media of modernity (film and sound recording) which presume a natural and transparent correspondence between the thing and the world. For many modernists this tension is articulated by a return of language to the domain of live performance and an insistence on it as ‘embodied’.

 

 

Listening: Hugo Ball, Karawane (1916); Wolken (1916); Gadji beri bimba (1916) at http://www.ubu.com/sound/ball.html

Also hear Raoul Hausmann bbb fmsbw (1918) http://ubu.artmob.ca/sound/hausmann_raoul/Hausmann-Raoul_bbb-2.mp3

and Kurt Schwitters Ursonate (1922) http://www.ubu.com/sound/schwitters.html 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading:

Sheppard, R. Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism (Chapter 5: ‘Modernism, Language and Experimental Poetry’) (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2000); Watts, H. ‘The Dada Event: From Transubstantiation to Bones and Barking’ in Foster, S.C. (ed.) “Event” Arts & Art Events (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988) pp. 119 – 131.

 

 

Further Reading:

Butler, R. Early Modernism: Literature, Music and Painting in Europe, 1910-1916 (Chapter 1: The Dynamics of Change) (Oxford University Press, 1994)

 

Doherty, B. ‘“See: We are all Neurasthenics!” Or the trauma of Dada Montage’, Critical Inquiry Vol. 24 (1997)

Kahn, D. Wireless Imagination: Sound, Radio and the Avant-Garde (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1994)

Lista, M. (Corner, J & Witkowsky, M. trans.) ‘Raoul Hausmann’s Optophone: “Universal Language” and the Intermedia’ in Dickerman, L. & Witkowsky, M. (eds.) The Dada Seminars (Washington: National Gallery of Art/Distributed Art Publishers, 2005) pp. 83-102

Perloff, M. The Futurist Moment: Avant-Garde, Avant-Guerre and the Language of Rupture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986)

Sheppard, R. ‘Kandinsky’s Early Aesthetic Theory: Some Examples of Its Influence and Some Implications for the Theory and Practice of Abstract Poetry’ Journal of European Studies No. 5 (1975)

Partsch, C. ‘The Mysterious Moment: early Dada performance as ritual’ in Jones, D. (ed.) Dada Culture: Critical Texts on the Avant-Garde (Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2006)

Preston-Dunlop, V. ‘Notes on Bodies in Dada’ in Stephen C. Foster (ed.) Dada: The Coordinates of Cultural Politics (G.K.Hall & Co., 1996) pp. 171-196. See especially pp. 185-196

Wall, J. & Jones, D. ‘The Body of the Voice: corporeal poetics in Dada’ in Jones, D. (ed.) Dada Culture: Critical Texts on the Avant-Garde (Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2006

White, J. Literary Futurism: Aspects of the First Avant-Garde (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)

Week 6: Reading week

 

Part Two: Theoretical Responses

 

 

7: Dialectic:

If some aspects of modernity’s new media create huge conceptual problems for some modernist artists, for others those media seem perfectly suited to describe the age to which they belong. In this seminar we look at how the Hungarian artist Lásló Moholy Nagy applies the Marxist-Hegelian principle of the dialectic in the mid 1920s to understand the emergence of film as a form of visual representation that succeeds painting and then photography. In Alberto Cavalcanti’s ‘city film’ Rien que les heures we look at an example of that dialectic placed within the film itself, as the frames freeze into photographs that are then destroyed.

 

Screening: Rien que les heures (Alberto Cavalcanti, 1926)

Reading: Moholy-Nagy, L. Painting Photography Film (MIT Press, 1977)

 

Further Reading:

Butler, C. Early Modernism: Music and Painting in Europe, 1910 – 1916 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994) pp. 133 – 208.

 

Dimendberg, E. "Transfiguring the Urban Gray: Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and 'Dynamic of the Metropolis'" in Camera Obscura, Camera Lucida: Essays in Honor of Annette Michelson, Richard Allen and Malcolm Turvey (eds.) (Amsterdam University Press, 2003)

Kaliska-Miller, A. ‘Films’ in Moholy-Nagy: Painting, Photography and Film in Weimar Germany (Wellesley College Museum, 1985) pp. 122-129

Licht, E.M. Picturing Modernism: Moholy-Nagy and Photography in Weimar Germany (MIT Press, 1995) especially pp. 56-127

Margolin, V. The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946 (University of Chicago Press, 1997) Chapters 2 [pp.45-80] and 4 [pp.123-162]

Rose, B. ‘Kinetic Solutions to Pictorial Problems: The Films of Man Ray and Moholy-Nagy’ Artforum 10 (September 1971) pp.71-73 *

8: Chance:

The introduction of the irrational is one of the classic modernist responses to history. By the time of the First World War (1914-1918) it becomes clear that rationality can produce only chaos – indeed, if we go back to Kern’s Culture of Time and Space or outside of culture to the theory espoused by A.J.P. Taylor concerning the origins of that war it might be said to be one predicated on industrial rationality and the standardising of time. However, chance can also be said to express the more general indifference of the modern world to the human. Dada and Surrealism will answer rationality with chance, the unconscious and the celebration of madness. Here we examine two films by the American artist Man Ray premised, apparently, on letting things happen as they fall.

 

Screening: Retour à la Raison (Man Ray, 1923); Histoire du Château de dés(Man Ray, 1928)

Reading: Watts, H. Chance: A Perspective on Dada (UMI Research Press, 1980)

 

Further Reading:

Foster, S.C. ‘Man Ray: Instruments of Insight’ in E. Peterson (ed.) Paris Dada: The Barbarians Storm the Gates (G.K.Hall & Co., 2001)

9: Obsolescence: the profane illumination

Whilst it celebrated the human unconscious, Surrealism also discovered a sense of the cultural unconscious, in the abandoned or transformed objects that it found in flea markets or walking through the city. In this, Walter Benjamin felt that Surrealism had, almost inadvertently illuminated the processes of capitalism, the idea of fashion and obsolescence. Benjamin wrote his great, never completed work on the shopping arcades of nineteenth century Paris as emblematic of the structure and process of capital only a few metres from those arcades, in the Bibliothèque National. We contrast his theoretical project with the recycling of suddenly obsolete ‘modern’ culture (the reworking of silent films made out of date by the talkies) undertaken by the American surrealist Joseph Cornell.

 

Viewing: Rose Hobart (Joseph Cornell, 1936)

 

Reading:

Benjamin, W. ‘Surrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia’, Walter Benjamin, Selected Writings, Volume 2: 1927 – 1934 (Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999) pp. 207 – 221

 

 

Further Reading:

Benjamin, W. ‘The Paris of the Second Empire in Baudelaire’ (1938) in Eiland, H. & Jennings, M.W. (eds.) Walter Benjamin, Selected Writings, Volume 4: 1938 – 1940 (Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003) pp. 3 – 92

 

Buck-Morss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989) pp. 8 – 43.

Cohen, M. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surrealist Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press) Hauptmann, J. Joseph Cornell: Stargazing in the Cinema (Yale University Press, 1999) pp. 85-116

10: The Aspiration to Music

Listening: Cavalcanti (Ezra Pound, 1931/33)

 

Reading: Fisher, M. Ezra Pound’s Radio Operas: The BBC Experiments 1931-1933 (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003)

 

 

Further Reading:

Bordwell, D. ‘The Musical Analogy’ Yale French Studies, No. 60 (1980) pp. 141-156

 

Bucknell, B. Literary Modernism and Musical Aesthetics: Pater, Pound, Joyce and Stein (Chapter 3) (Cambridge University Press, 2001) Founders Main 809.9317 BUC

Butler, R. Early Modernism: Literature, Music and Painting in Europe, 1910-1916 (Chapter 5: The Development of a Modernist Aesthetic, New Languages for Painting and Music) (Oxford University Press, 1994)

Ingham, M. ‘Pound and Music’ in Nadel, I.B. (ed) The Cambridge Companion to Ezra Pound (Cambridge University Press, 1999)

Vergo, P. ‘Music and Abstract Painting: Kandinsky, Goethe and Schoenberg’ in Towards a New Art: Essays on the Background to Abstract Art, 1910-20 (London: Tate Gallery, 1980)

11: Estrangement

Viewing: Le Coquille et le Clergyman (Germaine Dulac & Antonin Artaud, 1926)

 

Reading: Abel, R. French Cinema: The First Wave, 1915-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1984) Chapter 3 (pp.241-278) and Chapter 4 (pp.279-526, especially pp.377-382 on Entr’acte, and pp.475-485 on Le Coquille et le clergyman and Un Chien andalou) Founder’s Main 791.430944; Bataille, G. ‘The Human Face’ (Michelson, A. trans.) October, no. 36 ();

 

 

Further Reading:

Andrew, D. & Ungar, S. Popular Front Paris and the Poetics of Culture (Harvard University Press, 2005)

 

Artaud, A. ‘The Shell and the Clergyman’ Transition 19/20, (June 1930) p.63*

Desnos, R. ‘Dream and Cinema’ (1923) in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.283-285 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

Goudal, J. ‘Surrealism and Cinema’ (1925) in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.353-362 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

Green, N. ‘Artaud and Film: A Reconsideration’, Cinema Journal Vol.23, No.4 (summer 1984) pp. 28-40

Hedges, I. Languages of Revolt: Dada and Surrealist Literature and Film [Duke University Press, 1983]

Kovacs, S. From Enchantment to Rage: The Story of Surrealist Cinema [Associated University Presses, 1980]

Matthews, J.H. Surrealism and Film (University of Michigan Press, 1971)

Michelson, A. ‘Heterology and the Critique of Instrumental Reason’

Noxon, G.F. ‘Cinematic Idiom’ Experiment No.3, (May 1929) pp.35-39*

Part Three: Practical Solutions to Theoretical Problems

 

12: Asyndetony or Synthesis? Specificity versus Intermediality: The theorisation of expanded cinema in Futurism and Dada

Screening: The Rink (1917)

 

Reading:

Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) ‘Cinégraphie and the Search for Specificity’ pp.195-223;‘The Great Debates’ pp.321-348 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

 

Further Reading:

Abel, R. ‘The Contribution of the French Literary Avant-Garde to Film Theory and Criticism’, Cinema Journal, Vol. 14, no. 3, (1975) pp. 18 – 40.

Abel, R. ‘Abel Gance’s Other Neglected Masterwork, La Roue (1922-23)’ Cinema Journal, 22, 2 (winter 1983)

Abel, R. ‘On the Threshold of French Film Theory and Criticism, 1915-1919’ Cinema Journal, 25, 1 (autumn, 1985)

Aiken, E.A. ‘The Cinema and Italian Futurist Painting’, Art Journal, Vol. 41 (1981) pp. 353 – 357

Batson, C.R. Dance, Desire and Anxiety in Early Twentieth-Century French Theater (Ashgate: 2005) Chapter 5, Relâche

Brender, R. ‘Functions of Film: Léger’s Cinema on Paper and on Cellulose, 1913-1925’ Cinema Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Fall 1984)

Brown, Slater, ‘A Note on Sculptural Kinetics’ Broom 5:2 (September 1923)

Christie, I. ‘French Avant-Garde Film in the Twenties: From ‘Specificity’ to Surrealism’ in Film as Form: Formal Experiment in Film 1910-1975 (Arts Council of Great Britain, 1979)*

Corra, B. ‘Abstract Cinema – Chromatic Music’ (1912) in Apollonio, U. Futurist Manifestos, (Thames & Hudson, 1973)

Desnos, R. ‘Dream and Cinema’ in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.283-285 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

 

Gromaire, M. ‘A Painter’s Ideas About the Cinema’ in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.174-182 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

 

Gunning, T. ‘The Cinema of Attractions: Early Cinema, Its Spectators and the Avant-Garde’ Wide Angle 8, nos. 3-4, [Fall 1986] pp. 63-70

Hein, B. ‘The Futurist Film’ in Film as Film, Formal Experiment in Film, 1910-1975 (Arts Council of Great Britain, 1979) pp.19-21 *

Léger, F. ‘Painting Cinema’ in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929 (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.372-373 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

 

Lucchino, L. ‘Futurist Stage Design’ in Berghaus, G. (ed.) International Futurism in Arts and Literature (Walter de Gruyter & Co, 2000)

Martin, M. ‘The Ballet Parade: A Dialogue Between Cubism and Futurism’ The Art Quarterly Vol.1-2 (new series) (Spring 1978) pp. 85-111

Michelson, A. ‘Painting. Instantaneism. Cinema. America. Ballet. Illumination. Apollinaire’ in Francis Picabia: Máquinas y Espanõlas (IVAM Valencia 1995)

Petrie, B. ‘Bergson and Boccioni’, Burlington Magazine Vol. 116, No. 852 (March 1974) pp. 140-147

Sanborn, R. A. ‘Motion Picture Dynamics’ Broom 5:2 (September 1923)

Sanouillet, M. (1966) see especially full scenarios for Après dîner and Relâche 

Soupault, P. ‘Note 1 on the Cinema’ in Abel, R. (ed.) French Film Theory and Criticism, Vol.1, 1907-1929  (Princeton University Press, 1988) pp.142-143 Founder’s Main 791.43015 ABE

 

Verdone, M. & Berghaus, G. ‘Vita futurista and Early Futurist Cinema’ in Berghaus, G. (ed.) International Futurism in Arts and Literature (Walter de Gruyter & Co, 2000)

Veroli, P. ‘Futurist Aesthetics and Dance’ in Berghaus, G. (ed.) International Futurism in Arts and Literature (Walter de Gruyter & Co, 2000)

13: Montage, the Revolution and Alienation

Viewing: Battleship Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein, 1926)

 

Reading: Taylor, R. Battleship Potemkin(I.B.Tauris, 2000) Founders Main 791.437BAT/T

 

 

Further Reading:

Aumont, J. Montage Eisenstein (Indiana University Press, 1997) Founder’s Main 791.430233092 EIS/A

 

Bordwell, D. The Cinema of Eisenstein (Routledge, 2005)

Dunne, J-A & Quigley, P. The Montage Principle: Eisenstein in New Cultural and Critical Contexts (Editions Rodopi, 2004)

Nesbet, A. Savage Junctures: Sergei Eisenstein and the Shape of Thinking (I.B.Tauris, 2007)

Rhodie, S. Montage (Manchester University Press, 2006)

Taylor, B. Art of the Soviets: Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in a One Party State, 1917-1992(Manchester University Press, 1993)

Taylor, R. The Politics of the Soviet Cinema, 1917-1929 (Cambridge University Press, 1979) Founder’s Main 791.43090931

Taylor, R. & Christie, I. (eds.) The Film Factory: Russian and Soviet Cinema in Documents, 1896-1939 (Routledge, 1988) Founder’s Main 791.430947 INS

Taylor, R. & Christie, I. (eds.) Eisenstein Rediscovered (Routledge, 1992)

Taylor, R. & Glenny, M. (eds.) Eisenstein, Volume 2: Towards a Theory of Montage (BFI Publishing, 1994) Founder’s Main 791.43 EIS (4 copies)

14: Property as Theft

Screening: The Threepenny Opera (G.W.Pabst, 1931)

Listening: The Threepenny Opera (Berthold Brecht & Kurt Weill, 1930)

Reading: Marx, K., Capital, Volume 1 (Penguin Books, 1990) pp. 125-187

15: Surrealism’s Assault on Vision

Viewing: Un chien Andalou (Luis Buñuel & Salvador Dalí, 1928)

 

Reading: Bataille, G., ‘The Solar Anus’ and ‘The Pineal Eye’ in Visions of Excess (Stoekl, A. ed.) (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985) pp. 5 – 9; 79 – 90; Jay, M. Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth Century French Thought (chapter 4) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)

 

 

Further Reading:

Bataille, G., The Story of the Eye  Bois, Y-A., ‘On Matisse: The Blinding’ October no. 68 (spring 1994)

Finkelstein, H. ‘Dalí and Un Chien Andalou: The Nature of a Collaboration’ in Kuenzli, R. [ed.] Dada and Surrealist Film [MIT Press, 1996] pp. 128-142 Founder’s Main 791.43090914 DAD 3 copies

Finkelstein, H. The Screen in Surrealist Art and Thought (Ashgate, 2007)

Fotiade, R. ‘The Untamed Eye: Surrealism and Film Theory’ Screen Vol. 36 (1995)

Fotiade, R. ‘The Slit Eye, the Scorpion and the Sign of the Cross: Surrealist Film Theory and Practice Revisited’ Screen Vol. 39, (1998)

Hollier, D., Against Architecture: The Writings of Georges Bataille (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989) pp. 85 – 170.

Jay, M. ‘Scopic Regimes of Modernity’ in Foster, H. (ed.) Vision and Visuality (Seattle, Bay Press, 1988) pp. 3-23

Krauss, R., ‘“Michel, Bataille et moi”’, October no. 68 (spring 1994)

Levin, D.M. (ed.) Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision (University of California Press, 1993)

Liebman, S. ‘Un Chien Andalou: The Talking Cure’ in Kuenzli, R. [ed.] Dada and Surrealist Film [MIT Press, 1996] pp. 143-158 Founder’s Main 791.43090914 DAD 3 copies

López, I.J. ‘Film, Freud and Paranoia: Dalí and the Representation of Male Desire in An Andalusian Dog’, Diacritics Vol. 31, no.2, (summer 2001) pp. 35 - 48

Stoekl, A., Politics, Writing, Mutilation: The Cases of Bataille, Blanchot, Roussel, Leiris and Ponge (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985) pp. 3 – 21.

16: Responses to Hygienic Modernism and the Return to Man

Viewing: Pandora’s Box, (G.W. Pabst, 1929); Lulu (Alban Berg, 1934)

Reading: Armstrong, T. Modernism, Technology and the Body: A Cultural Study (chapter 3 ‘Prosthetic Modernism’ and chapter 6 ‘Making a Woman’) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

 

Further Reading:

Bataille, G. The Blue of Noon (Penguin, 2001)

 

Boa, J., The Sexual Circus: Wedekind’s Theatre of Subversion (Blackwell, 1987)

Geuss, R., ‘Berg and Adorno’ in Pople, A. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Berg (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Herf, J, Reactionary Modernism; Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich (Cambridge University Press, 1984)

Hinton, S. (ed.) Kurt Weill: The Threepenny Opera (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Klossowski, P. Sade, My Neighbour (Lingis, A. trans) (Chicago University Press, 1991)

Kracauer, S. ‘The Mass Ornament’ in Levin, T.Y. (ed. & trans.) The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays (Harvard University Press, 1995)

Lochhead, J., ‘Lulu’s Feminine Performance’ in Pople, A. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Berg (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Mahon, A. The Decadence of the Nude: Revisions (Black Dog, 2003)

Mahon, A. Surrealism and the Politics of Eros (Thames & Hudson, 2005)

Simms, B.R. ‘Berg’s Lulu and the theatre of the 1920s’, Cambridge Opera Journal, 6 (1994) pp. 147 - 158

Tatar, M. Lustmord: Sexual Murder in Weimar Germany (chapter 1 ‘Morbid Curiosity: Why Lustmord?’; chapter 4 ‘Fighting for Life: Figurations of War, Women and the City in the work of Otto Dix’) (Princeton University Press, 1995)

Treitler, L., ‘The Lulu Character and the Character of Lulu’ in Gable & Morgan, (eds.) Alban Berg

17: Reading week, essay tutorials

 

Part Four: Historical Contexts and Problems

 

18: Germany: Social Panic, Reification and Commoditisation

Viewing: Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari (Robert Weine, 1920)

 

Reading: Budd, M. ‘The Moments of Caligari’ in Budd, M. (ed.), The Cabinet of Doctor Caligari: Texts, Contexts, Histories (Rutgers University Press, 1996) pp.7-119 Founder’s Main 791.437 CAB/C

 

 

Further Reading:

Barlow, J.D. German Expressionist Film (Twayne, 1982)

 

Budd, M. (ed.) The Cabinet of Doctor Calgari: Texts, Contexts, Histories (Rutgers University Press, 1990)

Eisner, L. The Haunted Screen: Expressionism in the Cinema and the Influence of Max Reinhardt (University of California Press, 1973) Founder’s Main 791.430943 EIS 3 copies

Elsaesser, T. Weimar Cinema and After: Germany’s Historical Imaginary (Routledge, 2000) Founder’s Main 791.430943 ELS

Gordon, D.E. Expressionism: Art and Idea (Yale University Press, 1987)

Kellner, D. ‘Expressionism and Rebellion’ in Bronner, S.E. & Kellner, D. (eds.) Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage (Croom Helm, 1983) Founder’s Short Loan 809.04

Selz, P. German Expressionist Painting (University of California Press, 1974)

Weinstein, J. The End of Expressionism: Art and the November Revolution in Germany, 1918-19, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)

19: France: Retrenchment and the Aftermath of War

Viewing: Entr’acte (Francis Picabia & René Clair, 1924)

 

Reading:

Pierre, A. ‘Dada Stands its Ground: Francis Picabia Versus the Return to Order’ in E.Peterson (ed.)

Paris Dada: The Barbarians Storm the Gates (G.K.Hall & Co., 2001) pp.132-156

 

 

Further Reading:

Baker, G. The Artwork Caught by the Tail: Francis Picabia and Dada in Paris (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2007)

 

Camfield, W. Francis Picabia [Princeton University Press, 1979]

Freeman, J. ‘Relâche and Entr’acte’ in Francis Picabia: 1879-1953 (Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 1989)

Gallez, D.W. ‘Satie’s Entr’acte: A Model of Film Music’ Cinema Journal 16 (Fall 1976) pp.36-50

Gillmor, A.M. ‘Eric Satie and the Concept of the Avant-Garde

Golan, R. Modernity and Nostalgia: Art and Politics in France Between the Wars (Yale University Press, 1995) Founder’s Main 709.44 GOL

Green, C. Cubism and its Enemies: Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916-1928 (Yale University Press, 1987)

Krauss, R. Passages in Modern Sculpture, (MIT Press, 1977) pp. 207 – 213. *

Marks, M. ‘The Well Furnished Film: Satie’s Score for Entr’acte’ Canadian University Music Review No. 4 (1983) pp. 245-277

Michelson, A. ‘Dr. Crase and Mr. Clair’ October 11 (Winter 1979) pp.30-53*

Orledge, P. Satie the Composer (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Picabia, F. ‘Jésus-Christ Rastaquouère’ in Boulbès, C. (ed.) Francis Picabia: Poémes (Paris: Mémoire du Livre, 2002)

Picabia, F. ‘L’Athlète des Pompes Funèbres’ in Boulbès, C. (ed.) Francis Picabia: Poémes (Paris: Mémoire du Livre, 2002)

Picabia, F. ‘Jesus-Christ Rastaquouère’ in Lowenthal, M. (trans.) I Am A Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose and Provocation Francis Picabia (MIT Press, 2007)

Picabia, F. ‘The Mortician’s Athlete’ in Lowenthal, M. (trans.) I Am A Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose and Provocation Francis Picabia (MIT Press, 2007)

Pierre, A., ‘The “Confrontation of Modern Values”: A Moral History of Dada in Paris’ in Dickerman, L. & Witkovsky, M.S., (eds.) The Dada Seminars: CASVA Seminar Papers 1 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2005) pp. 241 – 267.

Sandro, P. ‘Parodic Narrative in Entr’acteFilm Criticism 4 (Fall 1979) pp.44-55

Silver, K. Esprit de Corps: The Art of the Parisian Avant-Garde and the First World War, 1914-1925 (Princeton University Press, 1989) Founder’s Main 700.94436 SIL

White, M. ‘Two French Dada Films: Entr’acte and Emak BakiaDada/Surrealism 13, (1984) pp.37-47

Winter, J. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

20: Britain: Never So Modern Again

Viewing: Coal Face (Antonio Cavalcanti et al, 1935)

Reading: Bryant, M. Auden and Documentary in the 1930s (University of Virginia Press, 1997)

 

Further Reading:

Carter, H. New Spirit in the Cinema (1930)

 

Dusinberre, D. ‘The Avant-Garde Attitude in the Thirties’ in O’Pray, M. (ed.) The British Avant-Garde Film, 1926-1995 (University of Luton Press, 1996) pp.65-86 Founder’s Main 791.430942 BRI

 

Kildea, P. ‘Benjamin Britten: Inventing English Expressionism?’ University of Toronto Quarterly, Vol. 74, no. 2, (spring 2005)

Low, R. Films of Comment and Persuasion in the 1930s (Allen and Unwin, 1979)

Mellor, D. ‘Sketch for an Historical Portrait of Humphrey Jennings’ in Jennings, M-L. (ed.) Humphrey Jennings: Film-Maker, Painter, Poet (BFI/Riverside Studios, 1982) pp. 63 – 72

Miller, T. ‘Documentary/Modernism: Convergence and Complementarity in the 1930s’ MODERNISM/Modernity, Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 225 – 241

Nicholson, B. & Sylvester, D. ‘William Coldstream: “Painting Given Subjects”’, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 119, No. 889 (April 1977) pp. 262 - 271

Northcott, B. ‘Notes on Auden’, The Musical Times, Vol. 134, no. 1799 (January 1993) pp. 6 – 8

Stephenson, A. ‘“Strategies of Situation”: British Modernism and the Slump, c. 1929-1934’ Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 14, no. 2, (1991) pp. 30 - 51

21: Britain: The Politics of Landscape

Viewing: Beyond this Open Road (B. Vivian Braun & Irené Nicholson, 1936)

 

Reading:

Cardinal, R. The Landscape Vision of Paul Nash (Reaktion Books, 1989)

 

Causey, A. Paul Nash’s Photographs, Document and Image (Tate Gallery, 1973)

Cunningham, V. British Writers of the Thirties (Oxford University Press, 1988)

Harrison, C. English Art and Modernism, 1900-39 ()

Peters-Corbett, D. The Modernity of English Art, 1914-30 (Manchester University Press, 1997)

22: Essay tutorials

 

   
 
 
 

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